From : PACIFIC MARINE REVIEW, Volume 42 - AUGUST - 1945
One of the latest ship designs of the United States Maritime Commission is a 12,000- bbls. capacity oil tanker designated as T1-M-BK1. These tankers, of which Joslyn and Ryan, Naval Architects and Marine Engineers of San Francisco, are design agents, are of the usual Forecastle - Bridge - Poop Deck type, with characteristics shown in table herewith. They are of allwelded steel construction, combining longitudinal framing for cargo tanks with transverse framing at the ends. A continuous centerline bulkhead and eight transverse bulkheads divide the ship into one dry cargo hold, a cofferdam and ten cargo oil tanks, with a pump room and machinery space aft.
The Maritime Commission received bids from shipyards all over the nation. The Steel Shipbuilding Division of United Concrete Pipe Corp., Long Beach. Calif., was low with a price of $588,929 per hull.
This firm was awarded six hulls, the Avondale Marine Ways, Inc., at Westwego, Louisiana, got six, and the New England Shipbuilding Corp. of South Portland. Maine, are building 12.
The first keel at United Concrete Pipe was laid on May 26. 1945, and all of the vessels are to be delivered before the end of the year. To expedite this early delivery, Joslyn and Ryan have prepared over 400 drawings in less than three months.
The specifications call for the most modern materials and construction developed during the war. All recommended
safety measures are employed for both ship and personnel.
These trim ships are designed for coastal service in the Far East, plying the ports from Ceylon to Cathay under the operation of the British Ministry of War Transport. In addition to the usual white officers" quarters, there are ten differ-ent crew compartments designed to suit the varying castes and ratings of the Lascar crewmen. Several of these have individual staterooms, such as the Serangs (number one boys), and Tindals (number two boys), while the Cassah (storekeeper) and carpenter bunk together. One Bhandary (engineroom or deck hoy) and six seamen are in one compartment and a Bhandary and four firemen in another. The cook shares berthing with a burier. two stewards with a scullion (mess or pot boy), and a spare. Four Seacunnies (quartermasters) are berthed together. The Topas is of such low caste that he sleeps in a rope locker and eats out on the deck some place by himself.
Naturally, there must be two galleys, one for Lascars and one for the Europeans, due to the differences in diets and customs. The armed guard also is provided with separate messing and berthing accommodations.
All accommodations and working spaces are mechanically ventilated with fan rooms in the forecastle, atop the midship house and aft of the stack on the boat deck. Cargo tanks are fitted with vents which extend up the masts and terminate with flamearresting caps.
Abrasive safety treads are used on all inclined ladders and in way of exterior doors. Plastic armor is used around the wheelhouse and all gun platforms for splinter protection. Exterior surfaces in the poop and midship quarters are insulated and lined with sheet metal or marine sheathing.
All lifeboats are of metal with Rottmer releasing gear. Two are 22 foot motorboats with a 25 -person capacity, and two are 22 - foot oar propelled type of 31 -person capacity
Boats are swung from Landley Crescent davits with hand-operated Landley boat winches.
To save valuable space on the forecastle deck, a capstan type anchor windlass is used. Hesse-Ersted of Portland, Ore., suppleid this equipment.
The ship is provided with a threeton boom on both fore and main masts, which is served by a small Hesse-Ersted cargo winch.
All deck and auxiliary machinery is electric powered from two 150-kw diesel generators. With the Busch- Sulzer main engines the auxiliary power units installed are Lorimer diesel engines driving Allis Chalmers generators. On the ships powered by Nordberg propulsion engines, the auxiliaries are Joshua Hendy diesels driving Crocker-Wheeler generators.
Main propulsion engines are direct connected diesels, developing 850 shp at 300 rpm. Busch-Suher and Nordberg share in supplying these units.
These main propulsion units are all 4-cycle, single acting, mechanical injection, direct reversing with attached Buchi type, exhaust gas driven, turbo supercharger. The Nordberg engines have six cylinders with 16-inch bore and 22-inch stroke. The Busch-Sulzer engines have eight cylinders with 13-inch bore and 20-inch stroke.
Both makes of engine use the fresh water cooling system with heat exchangers using salt water to cool the fresh water. Ross heat exchangers are used with the Nordberg engines, and Graham Mfg. Co. exchangers are used on the Busch-Sulzer diesels.
Starting air at 250 psi is supplied in each vessel by one motor drive compressor and one standby diesel engine drive compressor, each of Worthington make and of 20 cfm free air capacity.
A Heilman water tube boiler of 1500 p.h. capacity is installed to provide steam for heating quarters and cargo tanks.
Refrigeration of ship's stores is provided by a Carrier Corporation "Packaged Unit."
Two 25-kw motor generators take care of all lighting requirements, while a 2 1/2-kva DC/AC motor generator set operates the intercommunication system.
The liquid cargo will be discharged by two main pumps, each driven by a 60-hp motor, with a maximum rate of 1020 bbls. per hour through sixinch connections.
The cargo piping is arranged so that any cargo tank may be discharged independently. There are hose connections on each side forward of the bridge, at midship aft of the bridge house and just forward of the poop house, with one six-inch line extending along the poop deck so as to discharge over the stern.
There are no special stripping pumps provided, but a pair of 1 1/2-hp Quimby pumps connected with a two-inch line to each tank furnish auxiliary cargo pumping facilities and are useful to discharge small quantities of cargo.
Principal Characteristics :